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A National Measurement System for Radiometry, Photometry, and Pyrometry Based upon Absolute Detectors

References

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Uncertainties in this technical note follow the nomenclature and suggestions in B.N. Taylor and C.E. Kuyatt, "Guidelines for Evaluating and Expressing the Uncertainty of NIST Measurement Results," NIST Technical Note 1297 (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402-9325 1994); also available as a pdf (176 k).
  1. See the collection titled The Theory of Heat Radiation, volume 11 of the American Institute of Physics collection in the History of Modern Physics (1988).
     
  2. CIE Proceedings 1924, The Basis of Physical Photometry (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1926), Publication CIE number 18.2, CIE, Kegelstrasse 27, A-1030, Vienna, 1983.
     
  3. B.N. Taylor, Guide for the Use of the International System of Units (SI), NIST Special Publication 811, 1995 (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402-9325, 1995).
     
  4. J.H. Walker, R.D. Saunders, J.K. Jackson, and D.A. McSparron, Spectral Irradiance Calibrations, NBS Special Publication SP250-20 (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402-9325, 1987).
     
  5. J.H. Walker, R. D. Saunders, and A.T. Hattenburg, Spectral Radiance Calibrations, NBS Special Publication SP250-1 (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402-9325, 1987).
     
  6. R.L. Booker and D.A. McSparron, Photometric Calibrations, NBS Special Publication SP250-15 (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402-9325, 1987).
     
  7. H.J. Kostkowski, "The National Measurement System for Radiometry and Photometry," NBSIR 75-939, National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg MD, 1977.
     
  8. The CORM report can be obtained from the CORM Secretary:
    Dr. Arthur Springsteen
    Avian Technologies LLC
    P.O. Box 1076
    1 Morgan Ridge Road
    New London, NH 03257-1076
  9. W.R. Waters, J.H. Walker, and A.T. Hattenburg, Radiance Temperature Calibrations, NBS Special Publication SP250-7 (U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402-9325, 1987).
     
  10. "Techniques for approximating the international temperature scale of 1990," BIPM, Pavillon de Breteuil, F-92310, Sévres, France, 1990.
     
  11. Le Systéme International d'Unités (SI) (6th Edition, BIPM, Pavillon de Breteuil, F-92310 Sévres, France, 1991).
     
  12. C.L. Cromer, G. Eppeldauer, J.E. Hardis, T.C. Larason, and A.C. Parr, "National Institute of Standards and Technology detector based photometric scale," Appl. Opt. 32, 2936 (1993).
     
  13. Y. Ohno, "Realization of NIST Luminous Flux Scale using and Integrating Sphere with an External Source," CIE Publication 119, 23rd Session, New Delhi, 1995 (Central Bureau of the CIE, Kegelstrasse 27, A-1030, Vienna, Austria, 1989); also a related paper was published in J. Illum. Eng. Soc. 1996, see Ref. 40.
     
  14. See for example the following and references therein:
    W.R. McCluney, Introduction to Radiometry and Photometry (Artech House, Boston, 1994), ISBN 0-89006-678-7;
    R.W. Boyd, Radiometry and the Detection of Optical Radiation (John Wiley, New York, 1983), ISBN 0-471-86188-X;
    C.L. Wyatt, Radiometric Calibration: Theory and Methods (Academic Press, Orlando, 1978), ISBN 0-12-766150-6;
    C.L. Wyatt, Radiometric System Design (Macmillan Publishing Company, New York, 1987), ISBN 0-02-948800-1.
  15. F. Hengstberger, Absolute Radiometry (Academic Press, Inc., Boston, 1989), ISBN0-12-340810-5.
     
  16. W.W. Coblentz, "Various modifications of Bismuth-Silver thermopiles having a continuous absorbing surface," Bulletin of the Bureau of Standards 11, 131 (1914); also issued as Scientific Papers of the Bureau of Standards #229, March 1914;

    W.W. Coblentz, "Studies of Instruments for Measuring Radiant Energy in Absolute Value: An Absolute Thermopile," Bulletin of the Bureau of Standards 12, 503 (1915); also issued as Scientific Papers of the Bureau of Standards #261, March 1916.
     
  17. W.W. Coblentz, "Present Status of the Determination of the Constant of Total Radiation from a Black Body," Bulletin of the Bureau of Standards 12, 553 (1915); also issued as Scientific Papers of the Bureau of Standards #262, February 1916.
     
  18. The literature on silicon detectors is too extensive to review here as it is not the central theme of this Technical Note. The reader is referred to the following and the extensive references contained therein:
    W. Budde, "Physical Detectors of Optical Radiation," Vol. 4 of the Optical Radiation Measurement series (Academic Press, New York, 1983), ISBN 0-12-304904-0;
    S. Middelhoek and S.A. Audet, Silicon Sensors (Academic Press, London, 1989), ISBN 0-12-495051-5;
    For a review of early NBS (NIST) efforts see:
    J. Geist, M.A. Lind, A.R.Schaeffer, and E.F. Zalewski, "Spectral Radiometry: A new approach based upon electro-optics," NBS Technical Note 954 (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402-9325, 1977).
  19. D.C. Ginnings and M.L. Reilly, "Calorimetric measurement of thermodynamic temperatures above 0 C using total blackbody radiation, Temperature; Its Measurement and Control in Science and Industry, Vol. 4 (Instrument Society of America, Pittsburgh, 1972).
     
  20. C.R. Yokley, "Long Wave Infrared Testing at NBS," SPIE Vol. 416 Applications of Optical Metrology Techniques and Measurements II (1983).

    C. R. Yokley, "A Radiometric Calibration Facility for Low Temperature Blackbodies," Final Report to the NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, contract T-9550C, November 23, 1976.
     
  21. T.J. Quinn and J.E. Martin, "A radiometric determination of the Stefan-Boltzmann constant and thermodynamic temperatures between -408 C and +1008 C," Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London, A316, 85 (1985).
     
  22. J.E. Martin, N.P. Fox and P.J. Keys, "A cryogenic radiometer of absolute radiometric measurements," Metrologia 21, 147 (1985).
     
  23. The author knows of only two companies offering a commercial product, although other laboratories have developed cryogenic radiometers for their own use.
    In the United States
    Cambridge Research and Instrumentation, Inc.
    21 Erie Street
    Cambridge, MA 02139
    In the United Kingdom
    Oxford Instruments, Ltd.
    Eynsham
    Oxford OX8 1TL, UK
  24. At the 1994 CCPR meeting in Paris approximately 10 nations indicated that they had purchased a cryogenic radiometer or were in the process of purchasing one and would use it as the basis of the radiometric measurements in their respective nations.
     
  25. T.R. Gentile, J.M. Houston. J.E. Hardis, C.L. Cromer, and A.C. Parr, "National Institute of Standards and Technology high-accuracy cryogenic radiometer," Appl. Opt. 35, 1056 (1996).
     
  26. T.R. Gentile, J.M. Houston, and C.L. Cromer, "Realization of a scale of absolute spectral response using the NIST High Accuracy Cryogenic Radiometer," App. Opt. 35, 4392-4403 (1996).
     
  27. There is considerable literature on the quantum efficiency of silicon and a review of this topic is beyond the scope of this Technical Note. Some early NIST efforts in this regard are summarized in a paper by Zalewski and Geist titled, "Silicon photodiode absolute spectral response self-calibration," Appl. Opt. 19, 1214 (1980).
    See also a chapter by Geist titled, "Silicon Photodiode Self-Calibration," in Theory and Practice of Radiation Thermometry, D.P. DeWitt and G.D. Nutter (Wiley-Interscience Publications, Inc., New York, 1988), ISBN 0-471-61018-6.
  28. G.H. Rieke, Detection of light: from the ultraviolet to the submillimeter (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1994), ISBN 0-521-41028-2.
     
  29. Private Communication, P. Boivin, NRC Ottawa.
     
  30. E.F. Zalewski, The NBS Photodetector Spectral Response Transfer Program, NBS Special Publication 250-17 (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402-9325, 1988).
    See also T.C. Larason, S.S. Bruce, and C.L. Cromer, "The NIST High Accuracy Scale for Absolute Spectral Response from 406 nm to 920 nm," J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 101, 133. (1996).

    See also L. Canfield, Far Ultraviolet Detector Standards, NBS Special Publication 250-2 (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington DC, 20402-9325, 1987).
  31. Electrical standards are maintained in the Electronics and Electrical Engineering Laboratory at NIST.
     
  32. G. Eppeldauer and J.E. Hardis, "Fourteen-decade photocurrent measurements with large-area silicon photodiodes at room temperature," Appl. Opt. 30, 3091 (1991).
    G. Eppeldauer, "Temperature monitored/controlled silicon photodiodes for standardization," SPIE 1479, 71 (1991).
     
  33. A.R. Schaefer and K.L. Eckerle, "Spectrophotometric tests using a dye-laser-based radiometric characterization facility," Appl. Opt. 23, 250 (1984).
    A.R. Schaefer and R.D. Saunders, "Intercomparison between silicon and blackbody-based radiometry using a silicon photodiode/filter radiometer," Appl. Opt. 23, 2234 (1984).
     
  34. CIE Publication No.15.2, "Colorimetry" (Central Bureau of the CIE, Kegelstrasse 27, A-1030, Vienna, Austria, 1986).
     
  35. The Science of Color, Committee on Colorimetry, Optical Society of America (Edwards Brothers, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI, 1963).
     
  36. CIE Publication No. 69, "Methods of characterizing illuminance meters and luminance meters" (Central Bureau of the CIE, Kegelstrasse 27, A-1030, Vienna, Austria, 1986).
     
  37. CIE Publication No. 84, "The measurement of luminous flux" (Central Bureau of the CIE, Kegelstrasse 27, A-1030, Vienna, Austria, 1989).
     
  38. Y. Ohno, "New Method for Realizing a Total Luminous Flux Scale using an Integrating Sphere with an External Source," J. Illum. Eng. Soc. 24, 106 (1995).
     
  39. Y. Ohno, "Integrating Sphere Simulation-Application to Total Flux Scale Realization," Appl. Opt. 33, 2637 (1994).
     
  40. Y. Ohno, "Realization of NIST 1995 Luminous Flux Scale using an Integrating Sphere Method," J. Illum. Eng. Soc. 25(1), 13-22 (1996).
     
  41. Y. Ohno, "Photometric Calibrations," NIST SP250-37, (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402-9325, 1997). describing the NIST photometric calibration program.
     
  42. K.D. Mielenz, R.D. Saunders, and J.B. Shumaker, "Spectroradiometric determination of the freeing temperature of gold," J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 95, 49 (1990).
     
  43. B.C. Johnson, C.L. Cromer, R.D. Saunders, G. Eppeldauer, J. Fowler, V.I. Saprtisky, and G. Dezi, "A method of realizing the spectral irradiance based on an absolute cryogenic radiometer," Metrologia 30, 309 (1993).
     
  44. B.K. Tsai, B.C. Johnson, R.D. Saunders and C.L. Cromer, "Comparison of filter radiometer spectral responsivity with the NIST spectral irradiance and illuminance scales," Metrologia 32, 1 (1995).
     
  45. F.E. Nicodemus, "Self-Study Manual on Optical Radiation Measurements," NBS Technical Note 910-1 through 910-8, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402-9325. On a limited basis some of these documents are available from the Radiometric Physics Division, NIST, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-0001.
     
  46. R. Siegel and J.R. Howell, Thermal Radiation Heat Transfer, Third Edition (Hemisphere Publishing Corp., Washington, 1992), ISBN 0-89116-271-2.
     
  47. J.B. Fowler and G. Dezi, "High Accuracy Measurement of Aperture Area Relative to a Standard Known Aperture," J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 100, 277 (1995).
     
  48. D.P. DeWitt and G.D. Nutter, Theory and Practice of Radiation Thermometry (John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1988), ISBN 0-471-61018-6.
     
  49. Private Communication, R.D. Saunders. The Special Publications, SP250-1 and SP250-20 (Refs. 4 and 5), are being rewritten and will feature a complete uncertainty discussion for the determinations indicated here.

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